This time we will look at what a server is, its tasks and how to install it. The server is an integral part of the Internet and local network.
What is a server
Let us know in more detail what it is and what it is.
A server is a specialized hardware device that performs certain tasks, both remotely (which happens most often) and locally in place. Now tell about this more understandable language. So, the server is the same computer, only in most cases more powerful. A server, like a computer, consists of: a processor, a motherboard, RAM, and a hard disk. Most often, for large servers, components specially designed for this are used, but, nevertheless, there are servers from those components that are used by ordinary users.
Previously, the servers were in the usual system unit (case), but this is very non-compact and inconvenient, since most organizations have a need for several servers, and such “boxes” were very impractical. Thanks to new technologies, starting from the late 2000s, servers began to take on a slightly different shape. Now they are in a special compartment, which is mounted in a rack. These racks are in the form of cabinets, hence the colloquial name of the computer people.
Manage a large number of servers that are in racks, is done remotely. That is, an engineer, being both in the next room and in another city, can control servers from a distance. Installation of the operating system on the server is made on site.
The server is controlled, as was just said, by the operating system: both Linux and Windows . There are many versions of operating systems for managing servers, but it is worth noting that these are special versions of them. That is, they install for the server, for example, not Windows 7 or 8, but let’s say Windows Server 2012. The same applies to Linux: it is installed on the server, for example, not Linux Ubuntu, but Linux Ubuntu 12.04 Server. If Windows has only one server operating system, then Linux has several. For example, there are server versions of Debian and CentOS.
What is the server for?
Oddly enough, but the servers have a lot of destinations. A more complete list of their uses you can find on the Internet, we just describe the most common, so that you have a general idea about it.
- One of the main tasks of the servers is the organization of the Internet provider. The server connects the user and sends him Internet traffic, thus being a kind of base. In addition, there is a DNS server that is responsible for converting symbolic URLs to IP addresses. Any service provider works from a server, including the proxy server mentioned in previous articles .
- The second common server task is data storage. For example, the server stores all mail users mail service. Also on the server, users can store their data, these are the so-called cloud services, file sharing, etc.
- Well, the third common type of server destination is hosting. Hosting is a server that stores sites and all files that are hosted on this site.
The advantage of all these servers is that the user has constant access to them, from any device and from any place.
How to install the server
Installing Private Servers
Installing a server is easy. To install a server at home or in an office that will perform fairly simple tasks — you can select a regular computer, install a special server operating system on it, and connect to a local network or the Internet. If you want to access your server via the Internet, it is necessary that the server has a permanent external IP address. As a rule, servers work around the clock, but if you do not need it, you can turn them off when they are not needed.
For even simpler tasks, you can install a local server on your computer. That is, the server will be installed on the computer with the help of a special program, so you can simultaneously work on the computer and organize the work of the server on it – the main thing is to have enough resources. How to install a local server on Windows? To do this, you need to download the program Denwer – this program organizes a local server on your computer. There are a lot of instructions on its installation and configuration on the Internet, and this is a topic for a separate article. The same goes for installing a local server on Linux.
Installation of corporate servers
For installation of corporate servers special racks are used. You can order such racks freely on the Internet; there are a lot of resources that sell such equipment. In turn, you can choose the dimensions and parameters of racks, in accordance with the number of servers and tasks that they will perform.
When you bought a rack, you need to install it in a well-ventilated place. Install them in such a way that they do not interfere with anyone, and they have free access. Fasten the racks, then run the electrical cable and the mains to them.
Server components are located in special chassis. In the chassis everything is thought out for a compact placement of server components. Thus, you will not be difficult to install components there. When components are installed, the chassis is inserted into the rack and a trial run of this server is performed. Then a server operating system is installed on the server, and it is ready for operation.