What are the servers? Server installation, server setup

What is a server?

Server – (from English server serving). The server is software and hardware. Professional and amateur. Cheap and expensive.

 If you take a regular computer, upload movies there, open a folder with movies for access over the network, then this will already be a dedicated media server. That is, roughly speaking, a server is a computer (or program) that performs one or more functions for many people (well, for one is extremely rare) that serves for something.

What are the servers?

Domain controller – to ensure the safety and convenience of computer network maintenance, the user must have a login and password to access his computer. You can simply put it by means of the operating system. But then if the user forgot or lost the password, moved to another computer, quit, got a job – the system administrator will have to perform many unnecessary actions. In the case of the server, it is enough to configure it. That is, each action is performed easier and faster. Most often, the Domain Controller is combined with the Data Server.

Server data (files) and personal folders – if the user stores the data on your computer – then as a result of a failure, the data may be lost (now they are making unreliable equipment, not like before). To avoid this, the data must be stored in a safe place. And duplicate. With the presence of a Domain Controller, the users’ computer can be configured so that the data that the user saves to his computer is transferred to the server and stored there. Thus have less fear for the safety of the data.

Application Server – 1C, Consultant +, Garant – these are the simplest programs that can be installed on the server to provide access to a large number of employees. 

Server Names (DNS) – in the network each computer is assigned an ip address (ip, ip). Between themselves, computers communicate, turning it on him. For humans, this type of treatment is not very convenient. For example, to go to the site ya.ru you would need to dial: 213.180.204.8 Convenient enough. So they came up with access to computers by name. And the name server is the program that helps convert numbers to readable names. In an office network, a DNS server is most often combined with a Domain Controller.

Mail Server – e-mail. Without it, it is impossible to imagine office life. It seems to many users that e-mail is a program that costs them on a computer. But in reality – the mail program is only a shell, and the most important part is the Mail Server. This is where the mail is sent, where it comes from. The mail server communicates with other mail servers based on user-defined configuration files. The most famous mail servers are: Sendmail, Postfix, IIS, Kerio. Mail can be received without a mail program – through the site . And the sites are on a web server.

Web Server is probably the most popular type of server in the world, considering that according to statistics, more than 7 million are created every day in the world. web pages. A web server is needed to store websites and web applications. Our website and our hosting are also located on the web server. The most popular web server is Apache . =)

Gateway – every office has Internet access. But the Internet cable coming into the building is one. A user may be a thousand. How to do so to distribute one Internet per thousand users? 
The most savvy will say: you need a hub or switch. But these devices only connect. And for the Internet, we need to set a route for each user. This is where the gateway (router, router) will help us. It can be like a hardware piece of hardware (CISCO, JUNIPER, D-LINK) and maybe a server with programs. The gateway is best done separately from the domain controller and files. But the name server can be placed here. As well as a proxy server.

Proxy Server – (from English proxy – “representative authorized”). This is the server that makes the request to the Internet for you. Why do you need it? Anonymity. Security. Saving traffic. Control over site visits by employees. Authorization of access to the Internet. Banner blocking. Block unwanted sites. 
This is in brief. The list of features of such a program is great. The cost of servicing our company such a server is included free of charge in most tariff plans .

Database Server – different programs use databases (MySQL, Oracle, Postgress, MSSQL) for their work. These can be websites, accounting and many other programs. For a large amount of data, a dedicated database server is installed.

Terminal Server – needed to create remote work on the server to employees. Napimer – you have many offices and everyone needs to work with one program or you do not want someone to know where your server is located. 
The Terminal Server can be installed for Thin Clients – computers with limited functions and the ability to boot over the network from the Terminal Server.

Video Server – If a video surveillance system is installed, then one of its uses is to store recordings on a video server. And view them using different programs.

Media Server – mainly used in home networks and home theaters. It stores videos, music, games. It is necessary that many people can access one content (content).

Here is an almost complete list of what you have to face and work with.

What are server operating systems?

 Server operating systems should be divided into Windows and Unix (Linux). By Unix, we mean paid operating systems, and under Linux, free ones. Which ones you choose for yourself depends on the tasks to be solved. We recommend our clients to build on Linux the following server types: gateway, proxy, DNS server, media server, file server, web server, mail server, database server. A domain controller, video server and terminal server – on Windows. We offer corporate clients the unification of solutions – build all servers on the Windows operating system. Currently it is Microsoft Server 2008.

Why do you need a server?

 We have listed the tasks that the server performs, so the question should be put like this: Why do you need a server? And whether it is needed at all.

 If your company has less than five employees, then the server is not necessary. Although we advise you to get at least a gateway with a set of features that we include in the H20 Linux System. Especially if you have limited Internet traffic. With budget plans the cost of the server (including the computer and the program) will cost 10-15 thousand rubles with installation and configuration, and it will start paying for itself at least six months later. In most tariff plans, such a server is included in the cost of service.

 Also, if you care about the safety of your data – it will not be superfluous to purchase a file server with the function of a domain controller.

How much is the server?

How much is a car? Answering the question ” How much is a server ” is just as difficult. Server cost consists of:

  • Computer cost
  • Software cost
  • Cost of program settings

 The more reliable the server, the more processors, memory and hard drives it has. The higher quality and less hard drives, the higher its speed and failure resistance – the more expensive the server. For many companies, for example – HP the warranty is included in the cost of the servers – if during the warranty any part fails – within several days it is sent by courier.

 Most often, server hard drives (from two to sixteen) are combined into a single array. For example – you have eight disks of 100 GB each. The system is configured so – that they are defined as one. That is, you do not have 800GB, but the same 100GB. But at the same time, if half of the disks fail, the information can be saved. This type of storage is called a RAID array .

 There is this kind of server – Blade server (English blade, knife, plate). This is a mini-server, reduced to the size of the encyclopedia volume. At the same time, such servers are combined and 16 servers take places as 2-4 normal.

You can calculate budget, medium and professional servers:

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